Göbeklitepe, which has been a guest on the UNESCO World Heritage Site for a while, has been permanently listed in recent months. After added to the permanent list, 2019 was announced as “Year of Göbeklitepe”. So what is the significance of this place in Turkey and has great importance for the history of the world? The archaeological excavations in Göbeklitepe, which have been continuing since 1995, have fundamentally changed the knowledge about many issues such as the history of religions, settled life and human history. And every day we continue to question all we know. Here’s what you need to know about Göbeklitepe.
What is Göbeklitepe? Where is Göbeklitepe?
Göbeklitepe is located in Örencik Village, 20 kilometres away from Şanlıurfa. Göbeklitepe is 300 meters in diameter and 15 meters in height. It is located in a wide area of view. This area is a collection of remains dating back to 9,000 BC. The structure consists of two T-shaped obelisks in the middle of the low walls placed in a spiral or elliptical form. A thousand years after it was built, it was covered with soil for an unknown reason.
What should be known about Göbeklitepe?
Here are some things to know about Göbeklitepe:
- Göbeklitepe was identified in 1963 as part of the “Southeastern Anatolia Prehistoric Research Project” conducted jointly by the University of Chicago and Istanbul University. The first archaeological excavation started in 1995. The work was done by Klaus Schmidt. The excavations carried out over the years have revealed the monumental character of the region.
- Göbeklitepe is very important for being the centre of the first belief in the world. 6 temples were unearthed in the region, and 20 temples were discovered.
- Göbeklitepe is the oldest temple unearthed by this time and is 7,500 years older than the oldest monument. For example, it is known that it is 7,500 years older than the Egyptian pyramids and 7,000 years older than Stonehenge.
- Göbeklitepe is part of a formation that requires people to be together in crowds for the first time. In the period when Göbeklitepe was built, people collected plants and hunted animals. Therefore, they survived on their own or in small groups. The columns that were brought to Göbeklitepe were transported for 2 kilometres with packed human communities without using any tools.
- Research shows that the ancestor of wheat, which today has hundreds of different genetic variations, may have grown on the slopes of Göbeklitepe.
- Archaeologists draw attention to the fact that the floor in the temple remains was constructed in such a way that it does not pass the liquid. That is the show that it can occur with fluids such as blood, water, alcohol, etc.
- The findings of the excavations show that beer was made and drunk in the stone age. The six-beer barrel, carved into limestone with a capacity of 160 litres, is one of the most significant evidence. This information shows that humankind may have started farming for the sake of beer, not for bread.
- Göbeklitepe; It shows that human beings know hierarchy, belief systems and social formation a few thousand years before they settled and started farming.
- When the man is not farming, not domesticating animals and not discovering animals; the carving of the people on the obelisks in Göbeklitepe, and the symbolic expression style shown in the paintings and reliefs is quite remarkable. This situation shows that people have an aesthetic understanding and high consciousness at that time.